Copyright protection arises automatically for all original literary, artistic, dramatic and musical works, computer programs, translations and compilations of works, as well as sound recordings, performances and communication signals.
As the creator of the work, you automatically have copyright over your intellectual work, unless you sign an agreement transferring certain rights to another individual organization, which is often the purpose of the publication agreement you sign with a publisher.
Publication agreements are negotiable: if the agreement does not allow for certain key rights(the right to archive a peer-reviewed copy of your work, for instance), you can request an amendment to your agreement. For more information, see the information under Managing Copyright.
Author rights refer to the rights you retain over your work when you sign a publication agreement. When you publish a book or a paper, many publishers will typically ask you to transfer all your copyrights to the work as a condition of publication. This contract may also be referred to as a “copyright transfer agreement”.
It is important to look carefully at your agreement. Unless the agreement indicates otherwise, you may be forbidden to:
Remember that publication agreement are negotiable. See information under Managing Copyright for author addendums, which can be attached to publication agreement to retain certain rights over your work.
If you’d like assistance interpreting a publication agreement, or assistance with negotiating rights, contact the MRU Copyright Advisor at MRUcopyright@mtroyal.ca.
For information about how to post copies of your research online in a copyright-compliant manner, please see the following from the CARL (Canadian Association of Research Libraries) website: How to avoid receiving a takedown notice from a publisher (and what to do if you get one!)
Copyright is actually a bundle of rights, including the rights over reproduction, creation of derivative works (modifications and adaptations), distribution, and public display. Read your publication agreement (sometimes also called a copyright transfer agreement) to see if the publisher allows you to retain rights that are important to you.
Remember that publication agreements are negotiable. If your agreement asks you to forfeit important rights over your work, there are tools available to negotiate a more balanced agreement: The SPARC Canadian Author Addendum and Scholar’s Copyright Addendum Engine generate PDF documents that may be attached to a publisher agreement, and allow you retain certain rights, including:
This will depend on the copyright policies of your publisher, the rights you retained through your publication agreement, and the version of the work you’d like to share.
Some publisher agreements allows authors to archive pre-prints (your manuscript prior to peer review), and/or post prints (your final peer-reviewed manuscripts). Open Access journals often allow you to retain copyright over your article with very few or no restrictions (authors are often able to freely share the PDF of the final article). Publishers may also specify conditions such as where you can archive, how soon after publication, and how to cite the resource when archiving.
The best way to determine what you can do is to read your publication agreement. You can also refer to Sherpa/Romeo, which provides details of the archiving rights normally given by the publishing agreements of various publishers. Sherpa/Romeo ranks publishers on the following scale:
Again, this will depend on your publication agreement.
These agreements typically establish who owns the copyright for the article (usually the publisher), and they often also outline how the article may be reused by the authors in the future. If you did sign such an agreement and you still have a copy on file, then you should check to see (1) who owns the copyright and (2) whether the agreement provides advance permission for authors to reuse content from the article in future publications.
If you don’t have a copy of your publication agreement, or if the agreement does not provide advance permission for reuse in future publications, then you will need to seek permission from the publisher to republish content. For most large publishers, you can usually obtain permission through the Copyright Clearance Center, or by contacting the permissions office of your publisher directly.
Open Access (OA) is a publishing model that provides an alternative to the traditional scholarly publishing model. There are different ways that open access can manifest, but for an initiative to be considered open access it must be free of price barriers such as paywalls, subscription costs to end users, or other charges/fees to access materials. OA resources must also be free of most kinds of permission barriers, such as copyright and licensing restrictions around (re)distribution of the materials. OA permissions may grant the user the right to copy, use, change, distribute or display the information, as long as the original author is given credit. OA does not change how information is created; rather, it changes how it is distributed. In a nutshell, Open Access attempts to make digital information freely available and easy to share.
For more information go to http://mtroyal.ca/Library/Research/OpenAccess/index.htm
The Mount Royal University Institutional Repository (MRUIR) is a digital showcase of the scholarship, research, and intellectual contributions of the Mount Royal University community. Institutional repositories have become the standard tool for the dissemination of the scholarly/research output of academic institutions. The Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR) lists over 3500 repositories worldwide.
For more information go to the MRU Institutional Repository homepage.
SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition) is a global coalition committed to making Open the default for research and education. In particular, the SPARC Canadian Author Addendum is a popular clause that you can add to your publication contracts to retain some of your copyrights when you publish your academic work.