Skip to main content


The very most basic explanation of what an evidence based paragraph can look like. 

An evidence based paragraph makes a point using evidence from the literature to strengthen that point. It usually has three parts:

  1. Point: The point establishes the main idea of the paragraph.
  2. Proof: The proof is what you use to prove your point. Usually consists of a paraphrase, summary, or statistic.
  3. Relevance: Relevance explains how the proof proves the point.

Point + Proof + Relevance = Developed!

Here is an example of how one could look:

Some kinds of honey have potential for use as an alternative to traditional antibiotics. Researchers found that after use for two days the area of skin colonised by bacteria was reduced by 100-fold on the skin that was treated with honey (Kwakman et al, 2008, p.1). The number of positive tests for bacteria were also significantly reduced (Kwakman et al, 2008, p.1). Honey is relatively cheap and available and may be able to play an important role in health care as a replacement for some of the antibiotics to which bacteria are developing resistance.

Kwakman, P. H. S., Van den Akker, J. P. C., Guclu, A., Aslami, H., Binnekade, J. M., de Boer, L., . . . Zaat, S. A. (2008). Medical-grade honey kills antibiotic-resistant bacteria in vitro and eradicates skin colonization. Clinical Infectious Disease 46(11), 1677-1682. htttp://

APA referencing used.

To avoid plagiarism when paraphrasing / summarising remember these five important points:

1) Your paraphrased text should be significantly different from the original (i.e. don't just change a few words here and there)

2) You must change the structure of the sentence or paragraph you are paraphrasing, not just the words.

3) If you use anyone else's words verbatim (word for word) you need to put quotation marks around it. Warning: Quotations are rarely used in the sciences

4) Use proper citation methods (in this case use APA) to give credit for the idea's, opinions or theories you are presenting.

5) Check that you have preserved the original meaning of the text in your paraphrased version

Paraphrasing and summarising exercises from Purdue University

six steps to paraphrasing

Understanding the flow of scientific information can help you in your research. You will adapt your search strategy depending on the type of information you are looking for.


Originally created by Jim Parrott.
Adapted by Jackie Stapleton, 2007.

Used with permission.

Kalen Keavey's picture
Kalen Keavey