Research Process Video Series
This video series walks students through the research process to develop a PICO(T) question. It also includes advanced search strategies using the SportDiscus Databases. To watch these video, see the YouTube links below. To watch in full screen, click on the YouTube logo in the embedded video.
Step 1: Start with a broad topic of interest
Step 2: Search for literature on your topic
Step 3: Identify a research gap
Step 4: Develop a draft PICO(T) question
Step 5: Refine PICO(T) question and choose study method
Before you start searching, it can be helpful to identify potential synonyms for the most important words in your question
Does regular access to an iPad increase young children's physical dexterity?
|iPad||tablet, smartphone, video game, computer|
|young children||depends on age of interest - e.g. toddlers, pre-schoolers, etc|
What are university athletes' perceptions of hazing in sport?
|University athletes||College athletes, varsity athletes, etc|
|Hazing||initiation, right of passage|
Search different spellings and plural/singular
An asterisk (*) or truncation symbols means I don't care how it ends e.g. sprain*
Use quotation marks "" to search for a particular phrase e.g. "risk taking"
Proximity searching lets you search for two words near each other e.g. ankle N2 sprain* will look for those words within two words of each other in any order
Avoid typing sentences into the search box. Always use AND or OR between different ideas:
Advanced search tutorial videos
Subject headings vs keywords
Natural language words that describe your topic
Pro: Easy to combine terms
Pro: Can search for them anywhere in the source
Con: Can be difficult to narrow results
Con: Might retrieve irrelevant results
Pre-defined vocabulary that describes your topic
Pro: Can quickly rule out irrelevant sources
Pro: Often retrieves more accurate results
Con: Harder to combine terms (need to know which terms exist)
You can improve your search results by combining the keywords you brainstorm with the subject headings each database uses to categorize articles. These headings or tags are added to articles to make them easier to find and group.
In Medline/PubMed, the headings are called MESH
In CINAHL, the headings are called CINAHL headings
In SportDiscus, the headings can be found in the Thesaurus.
Strategy 1: Carefully review the references of relevant articles you've found
Leslie, E., Sparling, P., & Owen, N. (2001). University campus settings and the promotion of physical activity in young adults: lessons from research in Australia and the USA. Health Education, 101(3), 116–125. https://doi.org/10.1108/09654280110387880
Strategy 2: Use Google Scholar or Scopus to find out who cited the articles you've found
Before using images in your poster, please ensure you have the right to reproduce the work. Many creators have given permission up front by assigning Creative Commons licenses to their work allowing for reproduction and reuse. Be sure to read the license carefully to ensure your use is permitted. You will also be required to cite your source according to the style you have selected.
Symbols to avoid with CC licenses
This symbol means no derivatives of the image are allowed
This images means you must share what you create under a Creative Commons license as well
Potential sources for images