Skip to Main Content

Citation, Style & Copyright Resources

Citation Examples

Please note that these APA citations do not have a hanging indent. Your citations should have hanging indents and be double spaced.
Check the MRU APA guide for proper citation formatting.

Officially in APA – live news broadcasts are not retrievable sources and therefore not cited. APA suggests finding the online version and citing that. 

However, you can use the examples below for citing live broadcasts and other media if your assignment requires it. Always check with your instructor about their expectations for citing these types of sources.
Video or Radio broadcast on the Web

Mottram, L. (2020, January 8). Hazard reduction burning is not a panacea to bushfire risk: Expert [Radio broadcast]. ABC.,-expert-says/11853280

High-tech special needs school in northwest Calgary a hit with the kids, principal says. (2017, January 28). [Video]. CBC.

***Note: when there is no author, the reference starts with the title.

Radio or Television Broadcast

Spandier, D. (Producer). (2020). CBC news the national [TV broadcast]. CBC.

Bonner, S. (Host). (2020). The world at six [Radio broadcast]. CBC.

In text: The World at Six broadcast on March 17 included 7 identifiably female and 19 identifiably male expert sources. (Bonner, 2020).

**** Note the full date in the in-text citation if you have more than one day’s episode in your references as this will help your reader identify which one you’re referring to.

Segment within a newscast

Hanomansing, I. (Journalist). (2017, January 31). Vancouver’s art gallery opening gala creates controversy. In D. Spandier (Producer), CBC news the national [TV broadcast]. CBC.

In text: Hanomansing (2017) said, “The arrival of the 12-foot dinosaur marked the point when chaos erupted” (3:12).

*** Note – for quotations from audio or video sources, use the time, rather than a page number

Radio or TV Series

Harwood, K., & Eaton, R. (Executive Producers). (2007-2008). Oliver [TV series]. BBC.

Episode in a TV Series

Sherman-Palladino, A. (Writer & Director). (2018, December 5). All alone (Season 2, Episode 10) [TV series episode]. In A. Sherman-Palladino, D. Palladino, D. Gilbert, M. Shapiro, S. Carino, & S. Lawrence (Executive Producers), The marvelous Mrs. Maisel. Dorothy Parker Drank Here Productions; Picrow; Amazon Studios.

Podcast Series

Abumrad, J. (Host). (2002-present). Radiolab [Audio podcast]. WNYC Studios.

Podcast Episode

McEwen, A. (Host). (2020, May 15). Octomom [Audio podcast episode]. In Radiolab. WNYC Studios. /podcasts/radiolab/articles/octomom


Please note that these APA citations do not have a hanging indent. Your citations should.

Posts, Tweets, Status Updates, Pages & Forums


Angelou, M. [@DrMayaAngelou]. (2013, June 9). You can only become truly accomplished at something you love [Tweet]. Twitter. /343844424767389696/

Gates, B. [@BillGates]. (2013, February 26). #Polio is 99% eradicated. Join me & @FCBarcelona as we work to finish the job and #EndPolio. [Tweet]. Twitter.

Facebook Post

Gaiman, N. [Neil]. (2012, February 29). Please celebrate Leap Year Day in the traditional manner by taking a writer out for dinner. It’s been four years since many authors had a good dinner. We are waiting. [Status update]. Facebook.

Online forum Post

u/FrelandsArmy (2020, August 21). Looking for somewhere to camp/sleep in car for a night in Calgary [Online forum post]. Reddit.

Reader comments

YouTube Comment

49metal. (2016). Re: Are you dating a psychopath? [Video file]. Youtube.

Online Forum Comment

00mba. (n.d.) Re: Injured mountain bike rider's story continues to fall apart. [Online forum post]. Reddit.

Images & Photos

Image/Photo with Caption

National Geographic. (2012, November 20). A supertelephoto lens allowed Colleen Pinski to capture this image of an annual solar eclipse. See more top shots: [Photograph]. Facebook.


Justin Trudeau [justinpjtrudeau]. (2018, April 8).  A wonderful conversation with the Queen ahead of #CHOGM18 today. It’s always a privilege to discuss the state of the world, and benefit from her wisdom and insight. [Photograph]. Instagram.

Image/Photo without Caption

U.S. Census Bureau. (2012, October 10). [Pathways after a bachelor’s degree in psychology: Educational attainment, common occupations, and synthetic work-life earnings and estimates] [Infographic]. Facebook.

Featured Books

In the field: The art of field recording

This is a collection of interviews with contemporary sound artists who use field recording in their work. These conversations explore the fundamental issues that underlie the development of field recording as the core of their practice. Recurring themes include early motivations, aesthetic preferences, the audible presence of the recordist and the nature of the field.

Interactive Narratives and Transmedia Storytelling

Interactive Narratives and Transmedia Storytelling provides media students and industry professionals with strategies for creating innovative new media projects across a variety of platforms. 

Sound Design for Moving Image

Sound Design for Moving Image offers a clear introduction to sound design theory and practice to help you integrate sound ideas into your productions.

Television Field Production and Reporting: A Guide to Visual Storytelling

Provides a comprehensive introduction to the art of video storytelling. Endorsed by the National Press Photographers Association, this book focuses on the many techniques and tools available in today's digital landscape, including how drones and miniaturized technology can enrich the storytelling process.

Profile Photo
Hailey Siracky