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Citation, Style & Copyright Resources

Citing

In all academic assignments, you must properly cite all ideas and work you use that are not your own to ensure the integrity of your work. Citations also strengthen your work as they show the effort you put into your research, and add context to your argument.

Under the Code of Student Conduct failure to cite properly is an academic offense and constitutes plagiarism. Plagiarism is copying someone else's work, words, or ideas and representing them as your own without giving credit to the author. 

Plagiarism in an academic offense; consequences can include failure of and expulsion from a course. 

There are two citation management tools you may consider using to organize your research:

Take a close look at them both and decide which one would work best for your research projects.

 

The library is here to help with citation:

  • Ask at the Service Desk for help with citation and assistance finding resources about citing.
  • Make an appointment with a Writing and Learning Strategist at Student Learning Services.
  • Student Learning Services provides daily drop-in citation help at the library Service Desk during the Fall and Winter semesters, Monday-Friday from 12:00-1:00 pm

A note about citation style guidelines: Many citation format guidelines are open to interpretation. For this reason your instructor is the final authority of the subject of citation for any given assignment.

Advanced Citation Examples

Please note that these APA citations do not have a hanging indent. Your citations should.

Posts, Tweets, Status Updates, Pages & Forums

Tweet

Angelou, M. [DrMayaAngelou]. (2013, June 9). You can only become truly accomplished at something you love [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/DrMayaAngelou/status /343844424767389696/

Gates, B. [BillGates]. (2013, February 26). #Polio is 99% eradicated. Join me & @FCBarcelona as we work to finish the job and #EndPolio. VIDEO: http://b-gat.es/X75Lvy [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/BillGates/status/306195345845665792

Facebook Status Update

Gaiman, N. [Neil]. (2012, February 29). Please celebrate Leap Year Day in the traditional manner by taking a writer out for dinner. It’s been four years since many authors had a good dinner. We are waiting. Many of us have our forks or chopsticks at the [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/neilgaiman/posts/10150574185041016

Reddit Thread

Gates, B. (2017, February 27). I’m Bill Gates, co-chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Ask me anything [Online forum]. Retrieved from https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/5whpqs/im_bill_gates_cochair_of_the_bill_melinda_gates/

Online forum

Rampersad, T. (2005, June 8). Re: Traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from World International Property Organization website: http://www.wipo.int/roller/comments/ipisforum/weblog /theme_eight_how_can_cultural#comments

Reader comments

YouTube Comment

49metal. (2016). Re: Are you dating a psychopath? [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com
/watch?v=cP5HIjA9hh4&lc=z13bu5ghznaawh0ez23ajz0gnquidx1z004

Blog Comment

MiddleKid. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Blog comment]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01/the_unfortunate_prerequisites.phpReddit Comment

Reddit Comment

00mba. (n.d.) Re: Injured mountain bike rider's story continues to fall apart. [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from  https://www.reddit.com/r/Calgary/comments/6n2y4n/injured_mountain_bike_riders_story_continues_to/dk6c12y/

Images & Photos

Image/Photo with Caption

Facebook

National Geographic. (2012, November 20). A supertelephoto lens allowed Colleen Pinski to capture this image of an annual solar eclipse. See more top shots: http://on.natgeo.com/UasjJH [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10151148294503951&set=pb.23497828950.-2207520000.1357225190

Instagram

Justin Trudeau [justinpjtrudeau]. (2018, April 8).  A wonderful conversation with the Queen ahead of #CHOGM18 today. It’s always a privilege to discuss the state of the world, and benefit from her wisdom and insight. [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/p/Bhuy8A1BB5v/?hl=en&taken-by=justinpjtrudeau

Image/Photo without Caption

U.S. Census Bureau. (2012, October 10). [Pathways after a bachelor’s degree in psychology: Educational attainment, common occupations, and synthetic work-life earnings and estimates] [Infographic]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/photo.php                ?fbid=10151027855527364&set=a.10151027848052364.407698.202626512363

Please note that these APA citations do not have a hanging indent. Your citations should.

If retrieved from collections of proceedings: 
Author(s). (Year, Month). Title of paper. Name of Larger Conference Proceedings Site. Retrieved from URL

MacMillan, M., & Mackenzie, A. (2012, June). Strategies for integrating information literacy and academic literacy: Helping undergraduate students make the most of scholarly articles. Proceedings, 33rd Annual IATUL Conference. Retrieved from http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/iatul/2012/papers/16/

If retrieved from other kinds of websites (author's sites etc.):

McGillicuddy, C. (2012, September). Chocolate as anxiety-reduction mechanism for stressed out students. Paper presented at the Fifth Canadian Conference on Chocolate-Related Self-Care, Calgary, Canada. Retrieved from http://www.mcgill.ca/~mcgillicuddy/chocoholicsmuch.htm

Please note that these APA citations do not have a hanging indent. Your citations should.

*Note the inclusion of the CPRS/IABC Catalog number to make the document easier to find. 
Author(s). (Year). Title. Description. (CPRS /IABC Catalog Number). Retrieved from URL [if online]

If using a print version:

Emerson, J. (2002). Ontario Dental Hygienists Association 2001 public awareness campaign. Work sample submitted for accreditation by the Canadian Public Relations Society. (CPRS Catalog No. 1-07-EME/01).

If only using the summary:

McGillicuddy, J. (2014). Social media strategy to inform students about changes to APA. Summary of work sample submitted for award by the Canadian Public Relations Society. (CPRS Catalog No. 1-07-EME/01). Retrieved from http://www.mtroyal.ca/library/inc/cprs/pdfs/7-01-MCG-13%20McGillicuddy,%20Jim.pdf  

If using the entire online version:

Hepplethwaite-Framinton, B. (2014). Strategic plan for enhancing the likability of APA's Facebook presence: An uphill battle. Work      sample submitted for accreditation by the Canadian Public Relations Society. (CPRS Catalog No. 1-07-EME/01). Retrieved from http://www.mtroyal.ca/library/inc/cprs
/pdfs/7-01-MCG-13%20Hepplethwaite-Framinton,%20JBeelzebub.pdf 

Please note that these APA citations do not have a hanging indent. Your citations should.

Author(s). (Year). Title. (Type, Insitution). Retrieved from URL

McGillicuddy, C. (2009). Chocolate in the lives of undergraduates: an exploratory study of narratives and dreams (Master’s thesis, University of Claresholm). Retrieved from http://dspace.uclaresholm.ca/7859.07

Please note that these APA citations do not have a hanging indent. Your citations should.

If the item is an article or news item, cite as you would articles from other databases. If the item is a case study, or a WARC-generated piece, follow the examples below:

Molson Coors Canada: Passport beer fridge (2015). [Case study]. Retrieved from http://www.warc.com

Cook, V. (2015). Culture vulture, Luxury edition 05. Retrieved from http://warc.com

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Sara Sharun